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APA Style, 7th Edition

A guide to using APA Style for writing research papers.

Web resources come in a variety of types and each type requires variations in how the reference list entry and parenthetical citation are constructed. APA notes that items posted online may not contain needed publication facts.  Nonetheless, citations must contain more than simply the URL which may change or be deleted. 

10.16 Websites

APA addresses proper format for citing webpages and websites in section 10.16. APA does not that this section is only for items that do not fit into any other category. As with citing other items, APA indicates as many of the following elements as possible should be included:

  • Author
  • Date the page was published or created in parentheses with a period following.  If no date is given, use n.d.
  • Title of the page in italics
  • Website name
  • URL; only include retrieval date if the content may change over time and the page may not be archived.  

For example, this is a webpage on a website with a group author.

R: Bread for the World. (2020) How to end hunger: Nutrition in the United States

P: (Bread for the World, 2020)


APA indicates a blogpost should be cited like a journal article as shown in 10.1 example 17.  Entries posted on a blog by the author or an approved guest blogger should be cited in the same format as web sites with the addition of the type of post in brackets after the title. APA indicates blog posts should be included in the reference list and as parenthetical citations.

R: Mounce, W.D. (2020, May 11). Does Paul have one or two purposes for his prayer? (Col. 1:10) - Mondays with Mounce. Zondervan Academic

P: (Mounce, 2020)

Information on citing a comment on a blog post is provided in section 10.1 example 18.

10.15 Social Media

APA indicates that only original social media content should be cited. When a social media post alerts you to other content, cite the other content as a journal article, blog post, website, or whatever format the other content takes. APA also notes that social media posts may contain irregular spelling or grammar as well as emojis. Posts should not be altered in any form. and emojis should be included to the extent possible. 

Due to the fleeting nature of social media, taking a screenshot of any social media prior to citing is a wise choice.

All social media posts should include the following elements:

  • Author. Twitter and Instagram posts should be followed by [@username] in brackets. 
  • Date of post
  • Content of the post up to the first 20 words. If audiovisuals are included, place a description in brackets. 
  • Social media site name.
  • URL. Not that if the site content may change over time and not be archived, it is permissible to include a retrieved date prior to the URL.

The following example is of a Twitter post.

R: Tygrett, Casey [@cktygrett]. (2015, April 28). "We don't need more Scripture, liturgy, or community. We need the wisdom to know what these all mean & how." Twitter.

P: (Tygrett ,2015)