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APA Style, 7th Edition

A guide to using APA Style for writing research papers.

Media resources come in a variety of types and each type requires variations in how the reference list entry is constructed. In the examples below, the reference list entry is listed first followed by the accompanying parenthetical citation. Guidance is provided for both fixed media items such as CDs and DVDs as well as online or downloadable media items.

APA notes that the citations for these items vary on whether the work stands alone or is part of a larger series. 

10.12 Film or TV

APA describes how to cite video recordings in section 10.12

This example is for a movie. This is the pattern for a stand-alone item. Note the type of materials is placed in brackets after the title.

R: Cross, J. (Director). (1989). Ee-Taow! [Film]. New Tribes Mission.

P: (Cross, 1989)

This example is for a single episode from a documentary or an item that is part of a greater whole. Note that the episode number is included as well as the type of material.

R: Walker, W. N. (Producer & Director). (2003). There is a river (Episode 1) [TV Series]. In J. Cross (Producer) This far by faith: African American spiritual journeys. PBS.

P: (Walker, 2003)

This example is for a lecture.

R: Willard, D. (2005, June). The New Testament theology of the church: The foundation for the spiritual formation community [DVD]. Lecture at Renovare International Conference, Denver, CO.

P: (Willard, 2005)

10.12 YouTube, Webinars, and Streaming Video

Section 10.12 examples 88, 89, and 90 provide examples for proper citation of TED talks, recorded webinars, and YouTube or other streaming videos. Note that the service on which the video is hosted is listed in the Source position before the URL.

The example below is for a YouTube video.

R: American Psychological Association. (2020, February 13). Creating references using seventh edition APA style [Video]. YouTube.

P: (American Psychological Association, 2020)

10.13 Audio Recordings

APA describes how to cite an audio recording for either music or a spoken item in section 10.13

  • Place the primary artist or speaker's name in the author position followed by their role in parentheses.
  • After the title of the album, which is in italics, place type of recording in brackets.

The first example is for a music recording.

R: Dixon, P. (Director). (1991). Songs & prayers from Taize. [Album]. GIA Publications.

P: (Dixon, 1991)

Recordings of lectures should indicate the place and date of the lecture like Conference Presentations in section 10.5.  If a recording was available online, the URL for the recording would appear at the end.

R: Wardle, T. (2006, September). Formational prayer: Positioning the broken for a transforming encounter with Christ [Conference session audio recording].  American Association of Christian Counselors, Nashville, TN.

P: (Wardle, 2006)

The following example is for an LCU chapel sermon.

R:Dicken, Frank. (2020, January 21). Experiencing authentic community: Revelation 2:1-7 [Audio podcast episode] in Chapel Sermon Podcasts. Lincoln Christian University.