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APA Style, 7th Edition

A guide to using APA Style for writing research papers.


Section 9.30 and 9.34 describes including a DOI or URL for electronic resources. APA indicates to use a DOI if available.

R: Morewitz, S. J. (2006). Chronic diseases and health care: New trends in diabetes, arthritis, osteoporosis, fibromyalgia, low back pain, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Springer.

P: (Morewitz, 2006, p. 252)

Items without a DOI from academic research databases such as EBSCOhost do not need a URL. 

The first example is a book from EBSCOhost ebooks and does not require a URL.

R: Wolf, K. B. (2005). The poverty of riches: St. Francis of Assisi reconsidered. Oxford.

P: (Wolf, 2005, p. 45)

When citing an item freely available on the internet, such as Google Books, include the entire URL for the exact electronic book.

R: Habermas, G. (1996). The historical Jesus:  Ancient evidence for the life of Christ. College Press.

P. (Habermas, 1996, p. 56)

This example is for a book available through an ebook reader such as Kindle. The format is not mentioned. However, include a non-database URL if available.

R: Wright, N. T. (2010). Small faith---great God. InterVarsity Press.

P: (Wright, 2010, chapter 2)