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APA Style, 7th Edition

A guide to using APA Style for writing research papers.

Quoting and Paraphrasing

APA provides additional information on quoting, paraphrasing, and avoiding plagiarism in APA section 8.23-8.36.  You must give credit for the source and ideas where credit is due.  If in doubt, it is safer to cite.

When utilizing the author's name in the text to introduce an idea or quotation, known as a signal phrase, place only the publication year in parentheses immediately after the author's name.  Immediately after the quotation, place the specific page number in parentheses. When paraphrasing a primary source, it is not required to include the page number but it is permissible. If paraphrasing a secondary source, include the page number.

The following paragraph gives examples of three parenthetical citations including the use of a signal phrase:

     As Hanmer, Greenberg, and Keshavarzian (2009) note “childhood is the most opportune time to break the cycle of poverty” as investing in “a child’s health, nutrition, education, and social, emotional, and cognitive development is an investment in a healthier, more literate, and ultimately, more productive and spiritually strong population” (p. 53).  Religious communities possess the unique ability to transform views by providing spiritual encouragement, moral formation, and training and education (Foster, 2009, p. 13).  Unlike international aid organizations and government entities, religious communities have the trust and confidence of their communities as well (Hanmer et al., 2009, p. 53).

What abot the Title?

Sometimes when introducing a quotation or paraphrase, you wish to mention not only the author of the work but also the specific title of the work. When using the title of a book, article, or report within the narrative text, APA indicates that the title should be in Title Case where all major words are capitalized. See section 6.17 Titles of Works and Headings Within Words for more information. 

8.24 Long Paraphrase

Sometimes a long paraphrase of several sentences is needed to summarize a work. Make certain to cite your source after the first use. Repeating a parenthetical citation is not needed. However, if the paraphrase continues to a second paragraph, a second citation is needed.

8.25 Direct Quotation

APA indicates it is best to paraphrase. But it is permissible to use a direct quotation in the following circumstances:

  • exact definitions
  • a memorable statement
  • desire to respond to exact words

When using a direct quotation, provide author, year, and page number so that the reader can locate the exact quotation. 

8.27 Block Quotes

Block quotations are used for quotations of 40 or more words. 

Block quotations start on a new line with the entire quotation indented by 1/2 inch or 1 tab.  The entire quotation should be double-spaced just like the remaining text and does not have quotation marks. The parenthetical citation will appear immediately after the quotation with no period at the end.