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MLA Style

A guide to MLA style citations for Lincoln Christian University students.

Media resources come in a variety of types which requires adjustments in the elements included in the citation. In the examples below, the works cited list entry is listed first followed by the accompanying parenthetical, in-text citation. Guidance is provided for both fixed media items such as CDs and DVDs as well as online or downloadable media items.

Video Recordings

MLA uses the same core elements for media as for other sources with some exceptions.

MLA indicates the media title should be placed first with the director or other names crucial to your research placed in the "other contributors" element unless the person involved is the primary focus of the citation.

This example is for a movie. 

WC: Ee-Taow!, directed by John Cross, New Tribes Mission, 1989.

The accompanying parenthetical, in-text citation should list the specific range of time being cited as indicated by the media player. List hours, minutes, second separated by colons as shown below.

P: (Ee-Taow! 00: 45: 02-00:50:15)

This example is for a single episode from a documentary. Indicate the season number, episode number, or any other numerical identification in the number core element space prior to publication information. 

WC: "There is a River." This Far by Faith: African American Spiritual Journeys, directed and produced by W. Noland Walker, episode 1, PBS, 2003.

P: ("There is a River" 00:22:15-00:25:30 )

This example is for a lecture.

WC: Willard, Dallas. "The New Testament Theology of the Church: The Foundation for the Spiritual Formation Community." Renovare International Conference, June 2005, Denver, CO.

P: (Willard 00:15-17:45)

Online Videos and Podcasts

When citing online videos and podcasts, state the database or location where the video or podcast is housed followed by the URL. Professors may require an access date. 

WC: Lowery, Robert. “Revelation Session 4.” New Life Christian Church, 14 November 2009, Morton, IL. Vimeo, 

P: (Lowery 00:10:34-00:15:33)

WC: Laughlin, Lynn. “Building on a Firm Foundation: The Disciple’s Honesty." Lincoln Christian University, 19 March 2003, Lincoln, IL. Accessed 13 November 2018.

P: (Laughlin 00:17-19:26)

Sound Recordings

For sound recordings, list the primary performer or contributor in the author space unless that person is not the primary focus of the research.  When citing a specific song fro an album, list the song as the title of the source and the album title as the title of the container. 

The first example is for a music recording where the entire album is being cited instead of a specific song..

WC: Songs & Prayers from Taize. Directed by Philip Dixon. GIA Publications, 1991.

P: (Songs & Prayers)

Recordings of lectures should indicate the place and date of the lecture.

R: Wardle, Terry. Formational Prayer: Positioning the Broken for a Transforming Encounter with Christ. American Association of Christian Counselors Annual Meeting, September 2005, Nashville, TN.

P: (Wardle)