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MLA Style

A guide to MLA style citations for Lincoln Christian University students.

Chapters & Essays

When citing an individual section of larger work such as a volume of essays or a reference work, cite the container in which the item is in AFTER the author and title of the individual section. 

  • Give the author's name.   
  • After the author's name give the title of the specific section enclosed in quotation marks and followed by a period.  
  • Indicate the title of the larger work or container where the section is found in italics.
  • If the larger work has an editor or other contributors, indicated edited by followed by a comma.
  • If the work has more than one volume, place the abbreviation vol. followed by the volume number immediately before the publisher followed by a comma.
  • Provide the publisher followed by a comma and then the publication date which is also followed by a comma.
  • At the end of the citation provide the page number location and end with a period.

Part of a Single-Author Book

Sometimes you may use only a single chapter or essay from a larger book by a single-author.  In those instances, cite the specific chapter used rather than the entire book as demonstrated below.

WC: Cone, Steven. "The Image of God." Theology from the Great Tradition, Bloomsbury T & T  Clark, 2018, pp. 263-274.

P: (Cone 270)

Chapters & Essays in Print Books

Here is an example for citing a specific article in a one volume theological encyclopedia:

WC: Morris, L.L. "Death." New Bible Dictionary, edited by R. W. Wood, 3rd ed., InterVarsity Press, 1996, pp. 265-267.

For the corresponding parenthetical, in-text citation, cite the author of the section you are citing.

P: (Morris 266)

Here is an example for citing a specific article in an abridged theological encyclopedia such as the one volume Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, frequently referred to as Little Kittel:

WC: Kuhn, K. G. "Maranatha." Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, edited by G. Kittel and translated by G. W. Bromiley, Eerdmans, 1985, pp. 563-564.

P: (Kuhn 564)

Chapter & Essays in eBooks

.Citations for a chapter or essay in an ebook or an article from an online reference work such as Sage Knowledge should be formatted exactly like a print item but also include information about the container where the item was found online including an online database URL or DOI.  A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is preferred when available as shown in the example below.

Note: The date of access is considered optional.  Check with your professor for their preference.  The date in day month year format has been included in the examples below. 

WC: Matheson, Victor. "Poverty Gap Index." Encyclopedia of World Poverty, edited by M. Odekon, Sage, 2006, paragraph 3. Sage Knowledge, doi :10.4135/9781412939607.n547. Accessed 8 November 2018.

P: (Matheson paragraph 3)

When using only a chapter of an ebook found via eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), Ebrary, or PsycBOOKS, this model would be followed.   

WC: Gottman, John M. and Julie.S. Gotman. "Difficulties with Clients in Gottman Method Couples Therapy." Transforming Negative Reactions to Clients: From Frustration to Compassion, edited by Abraha W. Wolf, et al., American Psychological Association, 2013, pp. 91-112. PsycBooks, doi: 10.1037/13940-004. Accessed 8 November 2018.

P: (Gottman and Gottman 95)