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Turabian 9 Notes-Bibliography Style

16.3.1 Footnotes or Endnotes?

When using the Bibliography-Note style, Turabian offers writers the choice of utilizing footnotes or endnotes.

  • Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page where the particular citation occurs. Many readers and professors prefer footnotes as they make it easier to refer to the citation. However, extensive footnotes may take up a large amount of space on a page
  • Endnotes appear at the end of the document in a section titled Notes. Some books utilize endnotes at the end of each chapter rather than at the end of the entire book. Some readers dislike endnotes as they require frequently flipping to the end of the document or chapter.

Utilize the style requested by the course professor. Typically, LCU professors recommend footnotes.

16.3 Formatting Notes

16.3.2 Referencing Numbers:

  • Insert a superscript number directing readers to a note after referencing or quoting a source. 
  • Place the number immediately following a quotation. 
  • For reference, but not quoted material, place the number at the end of a sentence or clause after the punctuation mark.

16.3.4 Spacing and Indentation:

  • Notes should be single-spaced with a blank line between items.
  • Notes are indented like a paragraph.  The first line is indented 5 spaces or a tab with subsequent lines not indented.
  • Turabian recommends utilizing the tab key rather than the space bar to achieve consistent alignment.
  • The number at the beginning of each note should be a regular number with a period after.

16.3.5 Complex Notes:

When utilizing multiple source in a single instance, group all of the sources together in a single note. List the sources in the order used in the text and separated by semicolons rather than periods.

16.4.1 Shortened Notes

When citing the same resource in subsequent notes, it is permissible to use a shortened form rather than the entire note. 

Use a Shortened Note if the subsequent citations appear on a different page.

When using only one source by an author, an author-only note provides the author's last name and the page number separated by a comma as shown below.

N: Stott, 40.

If using more than one source by an author, an author-title note provides the author's last name, title of the work, and page number separated by commas as shown below.

N: Wright,  Surprised by Hope, 30

When using a source that does not have a named author or editor, a title-only note provides a shortened form of the source title and page number separated by a comma as shown below.

 N: “Reject Apathy,” 83.

You may use Ibid. if the subsequent citation appears immediately after a citation for the same work and on the same page:

The abbreviation Ibid. is short for the Latin ibidem meaning "in the same place." 

Turabian notes this abbreviation should be capitalized and must end with a period but is not italicized as in the footnote below.

N: Ibid., 84.

Special Rules for Footnotes

Footnotes must begin on the page where the material is referenced. 

Place a short line or rule between the body of your paper and the first footnote. Most word processors do this automatically. 

If a footnote extends to the next page, such as in a complex footnote, mid-sentence is the best place to put the break.