Media resources come in a variety of types and each type requires variations in how the footnote and bibliography entry are constructed. In the examples below, the bibliography entry is listed first followed by the accompanying footnote. Guidance is provided for both fixed media items such as CDs and DVDs as well as online or downloadable media items.
Turabian describes how to cite movies in section 22.214.171.124. Turabian indicates notes should begin with the title of the movie while in the bibliography you may list the movie under the title or director. You may also include a publication date for the recording which is particularly useful for re-issued items. If the movie was viewed online, include the URL.
This example is for a movie. Note the title in this example ends in an exclamation mark. Turabian notes that no punctuation should appear after a title ending in a question mark or exclamation mark.
B: Ee-Taow! Directed by John Cross. 1989. Destination Summit New Tribes Mission. Sanford, FL: New Tribes Mission, 2000. DVD.
B: Cross, John, director. Ee-Taow! 1989; Destination Summit New Tribes Mission. Sanford, FL" New Tribes Mission. 2000. DVD
N: Ee-Taow! directed by John Cross, (1989; Destination Summit New Tribes Mission, 2000) DVD.
Turabian indicates in section 126.96.36.199 that television and radio programs should be cited by the title of the program followed by the name of the episode or segment. Include the URL if accessed online.
This example is for a single episode from a documentary.
B: This Far By Faith: African-American Spiritual Journeys. “There is a River.” Directed by W. Noland Walker. Aired on PBS. 2003. DVD, disc 1.
N: This Far by Faith: African-American Spiritual Journeys, “There Is a River,” directed by Noland W. Walker, aired on PBS (PBS, 2003), DVD, disc 1.
Turabian indicates citations may be woven into the text in lieu of using a parenthetical citation.
The transcripts or word for word report of what was said, on various radio and television news programs are available through several library databases. Transcripts such as these are very useful when needing to cite a statement made by a political figure or someone being interviewed on the news.
To cite a news transcript follow the format provided in section 188.8.131.52 for a television and radio program and provide the database name or website URL at the end of the citation.
B: "Record 46.3 Million Americans in Poverty; Perry Under Attack; UAW, Ford Extend Contract Talks; President's Approval Ratings Sinking; Solar Energy Company Backed by Government Loans Bankrupt; Education Expert Discusses Future of American Schools; Iconic J. Crew Brand Hot Again" (transcript). Aired September 14, 2011, on American Morning (CNN) . EBSCOhost Newspaper Source.
N: "Record 46.3 Million Americans in Poverty; Perry Under Attack;UAW, Ford Extend Contract Talks; President's Approval Ratings Sinking; Solar Energy Company Backed by Government Loans Bankrupt; Education Expert Discusses Future of American Schools; Iconic J. Crew Brand Hot Again" (transcript), aired September 14, 2011, on American Morning (CNN), EBSCOhost Newspaper Source.
Turabian notes these items can be cited by weaving information into the text as you would a newspaper article. Minimally include the name and date of the newscast as indicated in the example below.
Reports of a record amount of Americans in poverty headlined the September 14, 2011 broadcast of American Morning on CNN.
Turabian indicates videos that are not movies or television programs should be cited by adapting the examples given in 184.108.40.206 and 220.127.116.11. Turabian also notes that citations for videos should be limited to notes or woven into the text unless the source is critical to your paper.
The following examples are for an online video.
B: Lowery, Robert. “Revelation Session 4.” New Life Christian Church, Morton, IL. November 14, 2009. Video of sermon. http://vimeo.com/7678371.
N: Robert Lowery, “Revelation Session 4,” New Life Christian Church, Morton, IL, November 14, 2009, video of sermon, http://vimeo.com/7678371.
This example is for a lecture which should include the date and place of the lecture as described in 17.7.2.
B: Willard, Dallas. “The New Testament Theology of the Church: The Foundation for the Spiritual Formation Community.” Renovare International Conference, Denver, CO, June 20, 2005. Video of Lecture. DVD.
N: Dallas Willard, “The New Testament Theology of the Church: The Foundation for the Spiritual Formation Community,” Renovare International Conference, Denver, CO, June 20, 2005, video of lecture, DVD.
Turabian describes how to cite a sound recording for either music or a spoken item in section 18.104.22.168.
The first example is for a music recording.
B: Songs & Prayers from Taize. Directed by Philip Dixon. GIA Publications CD-266, 1991. CD.
N: Songs & Prayers from Taize, directed by Philip Dixon, GIA Publications CD-266, 1991, CD.
Recordings of lectures should indicate the place and date of the lecture as indicated in 17.7.2. Include the type of recording medium at the end of the citation.
B: Wardle, Terry. “Formational Prayer: Positioning the Broken for a Transforming Encounter with Christ.” Annual meeting of the American Association of Christian Counselors, Nashville, TN, September 30 2006. Audio of lecture. CD.
N: Terry Wardle, “Formational Prayer: Positioning the Broken for a Transforming Encounter with Christ,” annual meeting of the American Association of Christian Counselors, Nashville, TN, September 30 2006, audio of lecture, CD.
This is an online audio example.
B: Laughlin, Lynn. “Building on a Firm Foundation: The Disciple’s Honesty.” Lincoln Christian University, Lincoln, IL, March 19, 2003. Audio of sermon. MP3 audio. https://www.lincolnchristian.edu/library/podcasts/chapel-sermons.php#2003-03-19-lynn-laughlin.
N: Lynn Laughlin, “Building on a Firm Foundation: The Disciple’s Honesty,” Lincoln Christian University, Lincoln, IL March 19, 2003, audio of sermon, MP3 audio, https://www.lincolnchristian.edu/library/podcasts/chapel-sermons.php#2003-03-19-lynn-laughlin.
Turabian indicates you must always include the full publication information in addition to the URL. Turabian states to use the full URL when citing personal websites. However, when using commercial databases such as those provided by the Jessie C. Eury Library, there are three possible options for providing the URL.
1. If a commercial database lists a recommended permanent URL for the source, use the permanent URL. Permanent URLs are available in Alexander Street Videos.
2. If a commercial database lists a DOI (Digital Object Identifier), Turabian indicates to use it as a DOI provides a more stable and permanent URL and is the best option.
3. If no permanent URL or DOI exists, Turabian indicates it is permissible to use the name of the database being used.
Turabian indicates to include access dates only for those items where a publication date, posting date, or last modified date is not available. In those cases the access date is used in place of a publication date. Turabian does note that instructors may require an access date be used and recommends recording access dates "just in case."