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Turabian 9 Author-Date Style

Turabian describes parenthetical citations in section 18.3. It is very important to make certain that any item listed in a parenthetical or in text citation, except for the Bible, corresponds to an item in your reference list.  Make certain that author, title, and publication information are listed exactly the same in both citation types.

18.3.1 Parenthetical Citation Placement

Parenthetical citations should be placed at the end of the sentence or clause containing the quotation or other cited material. The closing parentheses is placed before a period, comma, or other punctuation mark.

If the author's name is used to introduce a quotation or cited idea, a parenthetical citation containing the date and page number should be placed immediately after the author's name.

When using a block quotation, the parenthetical citation should appear immediately following the final punctuation mark of the quotation. and Same Author or Same Last Name

When citing multiple works by individuals with the same last name include the author's first initial.  If the last name and first initial are the same, include the full name.

When citing multiple works with the same author and same date, such as a book and a journal article published in the same tear, arrange the titles in alphabetical order in your reference list and add the letters a, b, c, etc. to the date.  Use the date and letter in the parenthetical citation to differentiate. More Than One Work Cited

In some situations more than one work is cited to make an argument. Group the works alphabetically by author, chronologically by date, or in the order of importance to the argument and separate each citation with a semicolon.

If grouping more than one item by the same author, additional items can be listed by date only and separated by semicolon.