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Turabian 9 Author-Date Style

Media resources come in a variety of types and each type requires variations in how the reference list entry is constructed. Turabian describes how to cite media items in section 19.10.3. In the examples below, the reference list entry is listed first followed by the accompanying parenthetical citation. Guidance is provided for both fixed media items such as CDs and DVDs as well as online or downloadable media items. Movies

Turabian indicates in section that movies should be cited under the name of the director followed by the date and producing company. You may also include a publication date for the recording which is particularly useful for re-issued items. If the movie was viewed online, include the URL.

This example is for a movie. Note the title in this example ends in an exclamation mark. Turabian notes that no punctuation should appear after a title ending in a question mark or exclamation mark.

R: Cross, John, director. 1989. Ee-Taow! Destination Summit New Tribes Mission. 2000. Sanford, FL: New Tribes Mission. DVD.

P: (Cross 1989)

When citing a specific portion of the movie, include the timing of the portion in the parenthetical citation. Television and Radio Programs

Turabian indicates in section that television and radio programs should be cited by the title of the program followed by the name of the episode or segment. Include the URL if accessed online.

This example is for a single episode from a documentary.

R: This Far By Faith: African-American Spiritual Journeys. 2003. “There is a River.” Directed by W. Noland Walker. Aired on PBS. PBS. DVD, disc 1.

P: (This Far By Faith 2003)

Turabian indicates citations may be woven into the text in lieu of using a parenthetical citation. News Program Transcripts

The transcripts, or word for word report of what was said, on various radio and television news programs are available through several library databases.  Transcripts such as these are very useful when needing to cite a statement made by a political figure or someone being interviewed on the news.

To cite a news transcript follow the format provided in section for a television and radio program and provide the database name or website URL at the end of the citation.

R: American Morning. 2011. "Record 46.3 Million Americans in Poverty; Perry Under Attack; UAW, Ford Extend Contract Talks; President's Approval Ratings Sinking; Solar Energy Company Backed by Government Loans Bankrupt; Education Expert Discusses Future of American Schools; Iconic  J. Crew Brand Hot Again" (transcript). Aired September 14, 2011 on CNN. EBSCOhost Newspaper Source.

P: (American Morning 2011)

Turabian notes these items can be cited by weaving information into the text as you would a newspaper article. Minimally include the name and date of the newscast as indicated in the example below.

Reports of a record amount of Americans in poverty headlined the September 14, 2011 broadcast of American Morning on CNN. Videos and Podcasts

To cite any video that is not a movie or television program or any podcast, utilize the examples given in and but add information about the program and file type and the URL if accessed online. Make certain to include the date the video or podcast was created or first broadcast.

The following examples are for an online video. Include the location and date of recording as well as type of item.

R: Lowery, Robert. 2009. “Revelation Session 4.” New Life Christian Church, Morton, IL, November 14, 2009. Video of sermon.

Turabian also notes that the time the cited material is given may be included in the parenthetical citation.

P: (Lowery 2009, 10.34)

This example is for a lecture which is described in 19.7.2 and adapted according to section

R: Willard, Dallas. 2005. “The New Testament Theology of the Church: The Foundation for the Spiritual Formation Community.” Renovare International Conference, Denver, CO, June 20, 2005. Video of lecture. DVD.

P: (Willard 2005) Sound Recordings

Turabian describes how to cite a sound recording for either music or a spoken item in section 19.10.4.

The first example is for a music recording.

R: Dixon, Philip, dir. 1991. Songs & Prayers from Taize. GIA Publications CD-266, CD.

P: (Dixon 1991)

Recordings of lectures should indicate the place and date of the lecture as indicated in 19.7.2. Include the type of recording medium at the end of the citation.

R: Wardle, Terry. 2006. “Formational Prayer: Positioning the Broken for a Transforming Encounter with Christ.” Annual meeting of the American Association of Christian Counselors, Nashville, TN, September 30, 2006. Audio of lecture. CD.

P: (Wardle 2006)

This is an online audio example.

R: Laughlin, Lynn. 2003. “Building on a Firm Foundation: The Disciple’s Honesty." Lincoln Christian University, Lincoln, IL, March 19, 2003. Audio of sermon. MP3 audio.

P: (Laughlin 2003) URLs; Commerclal Databases; and Access Dates

Turabian indicates you must always include the full publication information in addition to the URL. Turabian states to use the full URL when citing personal websites.  However, when using commercial databases such as those provided by the Jessie C. Eury Library, there are three possible options for providing the URL.

1. If a commercial database lists a recommended permanent URL for the source, use the permanent URL. Permanent URLs are available in Alexander Street Videos.

2. If a commercial database lists a DOI (Digital Object Identifier), Turabian indicates to use it as a DOI provides a more stable and permanent URL and is the best option.

3. If no permanent URL or DOI exists, Turabian indicates it is permissible to use the name of the database being used.

Turabian indicates to include access dates only for those items where a publication date, posting date, or last modified date is not available.  In those cases the access date is used in place of a publication date.  Turabian does note that instructors may require an access date be used and recommends recording access dates "just in case."