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Turabian 9 Author-Date Style

Turabian provides a basic pattern for citing all sources in section 18.1 and then describes how to cite books in detail in section 19.1.  The information below indicates how to cite a basic book.  As books come in a variety of shapes, sizes and formats and each format requires variations in how the reference list entry is constructed, examples for the variations are provided in the tabs above.

19.1 Books

Book citations included in the reference list must include the following elements:

  • Author's name listed last name, first name (or initials) separated by a comma and ending with a period.
  • Year of publication ending with a period.
  • The complete book title, including subtitle, needs to be italicized with all major words capitalized. Separate the title from the subtitle with a colon and place a period at the end of the title. 
  • Facts of publication must include the city of publication followed by a colon and publisher and end with a period.  If the city may be unfamiliar to readers or confused with another city (i.e Lincoln, IL and Lincoln, NE), add the state abbreviation as in the example below.

This is an example of a reference list entry.

R: Stott, John.1996. Guard the Truth: The Message of I Timothy and Titus. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

Book citations included as parenthetical citations must include the following elements:

  • Author's last name followed by publication year and a comma
  • Page numbers referenced.

This is an example of a parenthetical citation for the same book.

P: (Stott 1996, 200)

Multiple Authors

Section 18.1.1, and specifically figure 18.1, provides examples for citing multiple-authored works.

In a reference list, list the first author's name last name, first name followed by all other authors in the standard order (first name last name).  Separate each author's name with a comma. Use and before the final author's name followed by a period.

The example below shows a reference list entry for a multi-authored book.

R: Parrot, Les, and Leslie Parrot. 2006. Your Time-Starved Marriage: How to Stay Connected at the Speed of Life. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

This example shows a reference list entry followed by a parenthetical citation for a multi-authored book with four authors.

R: Millon, Theodore, Seth Grossman, Carrie Millon, Sarah Megher, and Rowena Ramnath. 2004. Personality Disorders in Modern Life. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

In a parenthetical citation, list all names in the order in which they appear on the book.  For two authors or more, separate the names using and.  If there are four or more authors, Turabian notes to list only the first author followed by the words et al followed by a period.

The first example shows a citation for a multi-authored book and the second examples shows a book with four or more authors. 

P: (Parrot and Parrot 2006, 104)

P: (Millon et al. 2004,168) and Editors or Translators

When an editor or translator is listed along with an author on the title page, the editor or translator's name goes after the book title.  In a reference list use the phrase Edited by or Translated by.

R: Augustine, Saint. 1961. Confessions. Translated by R. S. Pine-Coffin. New York: Penguin Books. 

In a parenthetical citation, list the author's name.

P: (Augustine 1961, 34)

When an editor or translator is listed in place of an author, treat that name as the author using the abbreviation ed. or trans. after the name in the reference list.  

R: Sweeney, Jon M., trans. (2013) Francis of Assisi In His Own Words: The Essential Writings. Brewster, MA: Paraclete Press.

No abbreviation is needed for the parenthetical citation.  

P: (Sweeney 2013, 52)

19.1.4 Editions

Some books have been published more than once incorporating changes in content.  These books are referred to as editions which must be noted in the citation.

Revised editions note a revised or second edition on the title page.  Include the number or description of the edition after the title and use the publication date of the edition being used.

An example of a book with an edition is given below.

R: Stott, John. 2001. Understanding the Bible. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Baker Books.

P: (Stott 2001, 45) Reprint Editions

Many books are printed in multiple editions such as hardback, paperback, and ebook. Make certain to cite the edition you are using.  However, if the book you are using was reprinted several years after the original, it is good practice to include the original publication date in your reference list. An example is given below.

R. Bonhoeffer, Dietrich. 1995. The Cost of Discipleship. New York: Simon & Schuster. (Orig. pub. 1959.)

P. (Bonhoeffer 1995, 106)

19.1.5 Multi-Volume Works

How to cite a multivolume work depends on several variables which are described in section 19.1.5.

If the item has several volumes and each volume has a unique title, give the title of the specific volume used followed by the volume number and title of the entire set as shown below. 

R: Henry, Carl F. H. 1979. God, Revelation and Authority. Vol. 3, God Who Speaks and Shows: Fifteen Theses, Part Two. Waco, TX: Word.

For the parenthetical citation, use the publication date and page number. 

P: (Henry 1979, 230)

If the volumes do not have unique titles and one or more volumes are being used, give the title of the entire work followed by each volume number used.  

R: Spurgeon, C. H. 1984. The Treasury of David: An Expository and Devotional Commentary on the Psalms. Vols. 3 and 4. Grand Rapids: Baker. (Orig. pub. 1882-1887.)

In the parenthetical citation list the specific volume number followed by a colon and the page number.

P: (Spurgeon 1984, 3:120)

P: (Spurgeon 1984, 4:50)

If utilizing an entire multivolume set, give the total number of volumes after the title in the bibliography entry.  If the item was published over a range of years, indicate the entire range.  

R: Spurgeon, C. H. 1984. The Treasury of David: An Expository and Devotional Commentary on the Psalms. 7 vols. Grand Rapids: Baker. (Orig. pub. 1882-1887.)

In corresponding parenthetical citations, cite the specific volume used.

P: (Spurgeon 1984, 6:34)

Turabian cautions that it is more precise to cite individual volumes if the volume has an individual title or editor.