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Turabian Style Using Footnotes and Bibliography

A guide to using the Kate L. Turabian A Manual for Writers in the Notes-Bibliography style.


This guide exists to help Lincoln Christian University students utilize A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th edition, commonly known as Turabian, to write research papers using the Bibliography-Note style of citations.  This guide does not take the place of owning and referencing a complete copy of this manual.  Instead, this guide serves to provide specific guidelines adopted or suggested by Lincoln Christian University for our campus.

16.3.1 Footnotes or Endnotes?

When using the Bibliography-Note style, Turabian offers writers the choice of utilizing footnotes or endnotes. 

  • Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page where the particular citation occurs. Many readers and professors prefer footnotes as they make it easier to refer to the citation. However, extensive footnotes can take up a large amount of space on a page.
  • Endnotes appear at the end of the document in a section titled Notes. Some books utilize endnotes at the end of each chapter rather than at the end of the entire book. Some readers dislike endnotes as they require frequently flipping to the end of the document or chapter.

Utilize the style requested by your professor.

Further Questions?

If you have questions not answered here, please contact the library via email ( or check with your professor. 

Additional Resources

The web pages below provide additional information on using Turabian style citations.